3. Embodied conversational agents — from art to engineering

We look at the major architectures and script/markup languages.

Table of Contents

1. The system architecture
1.1 SHRDLU [Winograd 1972]
1.2 Peedy [Ball1997]
1.3 Rea [Cassell 1999]
1.4 BEAT [Cassell 2004]
1.5 The blackboard architecture [Erman 1980; Carver 1994]
1.6 GECA [Huang 2008 AAMAS]
1.7 OpenAIR [Thorisson 2005]

2. Script/markup languages
2.1 H-anim http://h-anim.org/Specifications/H-Anim1.1/
2.2 STEP [Huang 2004]
2.3 CML / AML [Arafa 2004]
2.4 BML [Kopp 2002; 2006]

PPT

is available from here (access limited) (uploaded at 17:10 October 17th)

References

  • [Arafa 2004] Yasmine Arafa, Kaveh Kamyab, and Ebrahim Mamdani. Toward a Unified Scripting Language: Lessons Learned from Deeloping CML and AML, in: Helmut Prendinger and Mitsuru Ishizuka (eds.)  (2004) Life-Like Characters: Tools, Affective Functions, and Applications. Springer.  pp. 39-63.
  • [Ball 1997] Gene Ball, Dan Ling, David Kurlander, John Miller, David Pugh, Tim Skelly, Andy Stankosky, David Thiel, Maarten Van Dantzich, and Trace Wax.  Lifelike Computer Characters: The Persona Project at Microsoft Research.  Software Agents. Jeffrey M. Bradshaw (ed.).  AAAI/MIT Press. Menlo Park, CA. 1997.
  • [Carver 1994] Norman Carver and Victor Lesser. The Evolution of Blackboard Control Architectures. In Expert Systems with Applications—Special Issue on the Blackboard Paradigm and Its Application, Volume 7, Number 1, pages 1-30. January, 1994.
  • [Cassell 1999] Cassell, J., Bickmore, T., Billinghurst, M., Campbell, L., Chang, K., Vilhjálmsson, H. and Yan, H.  (1999). “Embodiment in Conversational Interfaces: Rea.” Proceedings of the ACM SIGCHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems (CHI), pp. 520-527. Pittsburgh, PA.
  • [Cassell 2001] Cassell, J., Vilhjálmsson, H., Bickmore, T.  BEAT: the Behavior Expression Animation Toolkit. Proceedings of SIGGRAPH ’01, pp. 477-486. August 12-17, Los Angeles, CA, 2001
  • [Cassell 2004]  Justine Cassell, Hannes Hogni Villhjalmsson and Timothy Bickmore.  BEAT: the Behavior Expression Animation Toolkit, in: Helmut Prendinger and Mitsuru Ishizuka (eds.)  (2004) Life-Like Characters: Tools, Affective Functions, and Applications. Springer.  pp. 163-185.
  • [Erman 1980] Lee D. Erman, Frederick Hayes-Roth, Victor R. Lesser, and D. Raj Reddy. The Hearsay-II Speech-Understanding System: Integrating Knowledge to Resolve Uncertainty, ACM Computing Surveys, Volume 12, Issue 2, Pages: 213 – 253, 1980.
  • [Huang 2004] Zhisheng Huang, Anton Eliens, and Cees Visser. STEP: a Scripting Language for Embodied Agents, in: Helmut Prendinger and Mitsuru Ishizuka (eds.)  (2004) Life-Like Characters: Tools, Affective Functions, and Applications. Springer.  pp. 87-109.
  • [Huang 2008 AAMAS] Hung-Hsuan Huang, Toyoaki Nishida, Aleksandra Cerekovic, Igor S. Pandzic, Yukiko I. Nakano: The design of a generic framework for integrating ECA components. AAMAS (1) 2008: 128-135.
  • [Kopp 2002] S. Kopp and I. Wachsmuth: Model-based Animation of Coverbal Gesture. Proceedings of Computer Animation 2002 (pp. 252-257), IEEE Press, Los Alamitos, CA, 2002
  • [Kopp 2006]  Stefan Kopp, Brigitte Krenn, Stacy Marsella, Andrew N. Marshall, Catherine Pelachaud, Hannes Pirker, Kristinn R. Thórisson, and Hannes Vilhjálmsson.   Towards a Common Framework for Multimodal Generation: The Behavior Markup Language, in: Proceedings Intelligent Virtual Agents 2006, pp. 205-217, 2006.
  • [Thorisson 2005] Kristinn R. Thórisson and Thor List (eds.)  OpenAIR 1.0 Specification, RUTR-CS-07005, Reykjavík University, 2005.
  • [Winograd 1972] Terry Winograd: Understanding Natural Language, Academic Press, 1972.