4. From observation to behavior

We look at data-driven methods for generating communicative behaviors of agents.   In general, methods consist of three stages: observation, modeling and generation.

Table of Contents

1. Gesture generation by imitation [Kipp 2003; Kipp 2007; Kipp 2007 JLRE]
2. Direction giving by speech and gesture [Kopp 2007]
3. Attentional behaviors [Nakano 2007]
4. Cube-G project [Rehm 2009; Hofstede 2001]


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  • [Kipp 2003] Michael Kipp. Gesture Generation by Imitation: from Human Behavior to Computer Character Animation, Boca Raton, Florida: Dissertation.com, December 2004.
  • [Kipp 2007] Michael Kipp, Michael Neff, Kerstin H. Kipp, and Irene Albrecht. Towards Natural Gesture Synthesis: Evaluating Gesture Units in a Data-Driven Approach to Gesture Synthesis, in: C. Pelachaud et al. (Eds.): IVA 2007, LNAI 4722, pp. 15–28, 2007.
  • [Kipp 2007 JLRE] Kipp, M., Neff, M. and Albrecht, I. (2007) An Annotation Scheme for Conversational Gestures : How to economically capture timing and form. In: Journal on Language Resources and Evaluation – Special Issue on Multimodal Corpora, Vol. 41, No. 3-4, Springer, pp. 325-339.
  • [Kopp 2007] Kopp, S., Tepper, P., Striegnitz, K., Ferrimen, K., Cassell, J. (2007). How Humans and Humanoids Use Speech and Gesture to Give Directions, in Nishida, T. (ed.). Engineering Approaches to Conversational Informatics, John Wiley & Sons, pp. 133-160, 2007.
  • [Nakano 2007] Nakano, I. Y., and Nishida, T.: Attentional Behaviors as Nonverbal Communicative Signals in Situated Interactions with Conversational Agents, in Nishida, T. (ed.). Engineering Approaches to Conversational Informatics, John Wiley & Sons., pp. 85-102, 2007.
  • [Rehm 2009] Matthias Rehm, Yukiko Nakano, Elisabeth André, Toyoaki Nishida, Nikolaus Bee, Birgit Endrass, Hung-Hsuan Huang, Afia Akhter Lipi, Michael Wissner. From observation to simulation: generating culture-specific behavior for interactive systems. AI & Society, Springer Press, Vol. 24, No. 3, 267-280, 2009..