The standard “behavior from observation” method has two bottlenecks, i.e., difference of embodiment and a manual generating of behaviors from an interaction corpus.
In order to resolve the difference of embodiment, a WOZ (Wizard of OZ) method is introduced to observe interaction between human participants and a robot controlled by a hidden human operator (WOZ). In order for the WOZ approach to be successful, we need to overcome difficulties for manipulating a robot with many degrees of freedom.
An immersive WOZ environment (ICIE) allows the human operator to control a robot as if s/he stayed inside it. The audio-visual environment surrounding the WOZ-operated robot is captured, e.g., by an omnidirectional camera attached to the robot’s head, and is sent to the WOZ operator’s cockpit to be projected on the surrounding immersive screen and the speakers The current version of ICIE employs eight 64-inch display panels arranged in a circle with about 2.5 meters diameter. Eight surround speakers are used to reproduce the acoustic environment. Altogether, the immersive environment allows the WOZ operator in the center of the cockpit to grasp in detail the situation around the robot to determine exactly what to do if s/he were the robot.
The WOZ operator’s behavior, in turn, is captured in real time by a collection of range sensors. Noise filters and human body model are used for robust recognition of pose, head direction and gesture. The captured motion is mapped on the robot for motion generation. The sound on each side of the WOZ operator is gathered by microphones and communicated via network so that other participants in the conversation place can hear the voice of the WOZ operator (with a modulation, when necessary).
A “learning by mimicking” is introduce to realize automatic generating of behaviors from an interaction corpus. The behavioral model of the robot is generated from the collected data in four stages in the framework of learning by mimicking. First, the basic actions and commands are discovered on the discovery stage. A number of novel algorithms have been developed. RSST (Robust Singular Spectrum Transform) is an algorithm that calculates likelihood of change of dynamics in continuous time series without prior knowledge. DGCMD (Distance-Graph Constrained Motif Discovery) uses the result of RSST to discover motifs (recurring temporal patterns) from the given time series. Second, a probabilistic model is generated to specify the likelihood of the occurrence of observed actions as a result of observed commands on the associa-tion stage. Granger causality is used to discover natural delay. Third, the behavioral model is converted into an actual controller on the controller generation stage to allow the robotic agent to act in similar situations. Finally, the gestures and actions learned from multiple interactions are combined into a single model on the accumula-tion stage. The above algorithms are presented as an extension to conventional methods.
Table of Contents
1. Immersive interaction environment [Ohmoto 2011]
2. Learning by Mimicking [Mohammad 2009 PhDThesis]
3. Motif Discovery [Chiu 2003][Pevzner 2000][Buhler 2001][Catalano 2003][Mohammad 2009]
4. Change Point Discovery [Ide 2005][Mohammad 2009]
5. Controller generation and accumulation [Mohammad 2010]
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